تأثیر مراقبه عشق‌ورزی-مهربانی بر کارکردهای اجرایی و بهزیستی روان‌شناختی سالمندان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه روان‌شناسی بالینی، دانشکده روانشناسی دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه روان‌شناسی بالینی، دانشکده روانشناسی دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران، تهران، ایران.

3 استاد، گروه روان‌شناسی بالینی، دانشکده روانشناسی دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار، گروه روان‌شناسی بالینی، دانشکده روانشناسی دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران، تهران، ایران.

10.22123/chj.2020.198218.1342

چکیده

مقدمه: افزایش جمعیت سالمند پیامدهای اقتصادی-اجتماعی برای ایران دارد. یکی از مشکلاتی که سالمندان با آن مواجه هستند کاهش توانایی‌های شناختی و کارکردهای اجرایی است که می‌تواند مشکلات عدیده‌ای در زندگی روزمره آن­ها ایجاد کند. هدف از اجرای این پژوهش تعیین اثر مداخله مراقبه عشق‌ورزی-مهربانی بر کارکردهای اجرایی و بهزیستی روان‌شناختی سالمندان 74-65 سال بود.
مواد و روش‌ها: در یک طرح تجربی به شیوه پیش‌آزمون-پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل که در زمستان ۹۷ در شهر تهران انجام شد، 50 سالمند 74-65 ساله به طور تصادفی در گروه‌های کنترل و آزمایش قرار داده شدند. بر روی همه آزمودنی‌ها آزمون ادن‌بروک، آزمون کارکردهای اجرایی و آزمون بهزیستی روان‌شناختی ریف اجرا شد، سپس در گروه آزمایش، مداخله عشق‌ورزی-مهربانی اجرا شد و آزمون کارکردهای اجرایی و بهزیستی روان‌شناختی به‌عنوان پس‌آزمون تکرار شدند. داده‌ها با روش تحلیل کوواریانس چندمتغیره تحلیل شدند.
یافته‌ها: نتایج نشان داد گروه آزمایش در متغیر‌های توجه (340/58F=، 001/0p<، 632/0η2=)، حافظه فعال (959/11F=، 001/0p<، 260/0η2=)، انعطاف‌پذیری شناختی (823/15F=، 001/0p<، 318/0η2=)  و بهزیستی روان‌شناختی (846/18F=، 001/0p<، 357/0η2=) بهبود‌های معنی‌دار داشتند. در متغیر‌های سرعت پردازش و حل مسئله تفاوت معنی‌داری مشاهده نشد.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به نتایج می‌توان نتیجه‌گیری کرد که آموزش مراقبه عشق-ورزی مهربانی به سالمندان و انجام آن می‌تواند بر بهزیستی روان‌شناختی و کارکردهای اجرایی مؤثر باشد و انتظار می‌رود بر کیفیت زندگی سالمندان اثرات مثبتی بگذارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Loving-Kindness Meditation on Executive Functions and Psychological Well-being in Elderlies

نویسندگان [English]

  • A Etemadi 1
  • Sh Mohammadkhani 2
  • Al Moradi 3
  • M Akbari 4
1 Ph.D. Student, Dept of clinical psychology, Faculty of Psychology and Education Science, Kharazmi University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Prof, , Dept of clinical psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Kharazmi University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Prof, Dept of clinical psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Kharazmi University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
4 Assistant prof, Dept of clinical psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Kharazmi University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The increase in the population of elders has socio-economic consequences for Iran. One of the problems faced by the elderly is the decreased cognitive abilities that, in turn, can cause many problems in their daily life. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of loving-kindness meditation intervention on the executive functioning and psychological well-being of the elderly.
Materials and methods: In an experimental pre-test/post-test control group design performed in Tehran, 50 elderlies aged 65-74 years were randomly assigned to control and experimental groups to all whom Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination test, executive functions test, and Reef Psychological Well-Being Inventory were administered. Then, an eight-week loving-kindness meditation intervention was performed. Besides, the tests for post-testing were re-administered. The collected data were analyzed by covariance analysis using SPSS software.
Results: Results showed that the experimental group had significant improvements in attention (F=58/340، p<0/001، η2=0/632), working memory (F=11/959، p<0/001، η2=0/260), cognitive flexibility (F=15/823، p<0/001، η2=0/318), and psychological well-being (F=18/846، p<0/001، η2=0/357). There was no significant difference between variables of processing speed and problem solving after the intervention between two groups.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that teaching loving-kindness meditation to the elderly can affect the psychological well-being and executive functions (attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility); thus, it is expected to have a positive effect on their life quality. Accordingly, the relevant institutions and specialists are recommended to offer meditation training to the elderly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Mindfulness
  • executive function
  • Elderly
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