تعیین اثربخشی بازی‌درمانی کودک محور بر خودکارآمدی و رفتارهای تکانشی دانش آموزان دختر مقطع سوم ابتدایی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه مشاوره، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

2 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه مشاوره، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه گیلان، رشت، ایران.

3 کارشناسی ارشد، گروه روانشناسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد رشت، رشت، ایران.

10.22123/chj.2020.212268.1402

چکیده

مقدمه: سال­های ‌اولیه ‌زندگی ‌برای ‌تحول ‌چند‌بعدی‌کودکان ‌و ‌شکل­گیری‌ پایه­های‌زندگی‌ ‌مهم‌ تلقی می­شوند. روش­های متعددی برای افزایش خودکارآمدی و کاهش رفتارهای تکانشیدر دانش­آموزان وجود دارد. یکی از رویکرد­های مؤثر، بازی­درمانی کودک­محور است. پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین اثربخشی بازی‌درمانی کودک­محور بر خودکارآمدی و رفتارهای تکانشیدانش­آموزان دختر مقطع سوم ابتدایی صورت گرفت.
مواد و روش ­ها: در این پژوهش، از روش نیمه­آزمایشی با طرح پیش­آزمون-پس­آزمون با گروه کنترل استفاده شد. جامعه­آماری پژوهش شامل تمامی دانش­آموزاندختر 9 ساله مدارس ابتدایی شهرستان رامسر در­ سال تحصیلی 97-1396 بودند که 24 نفر از آن­ها با روش نمونه­گیری در­دسترس و برحسب شرایط ورود به پژوهش، از دو مدرسه شهرستان رامسر انتخاب شدند و به­صورت تصادفی در گروه­های آزمایش و کنترل قرار گرفتند (12 نفر در هر گروه). گروه­ها، مقیاس­های خودکارآمدی کودکان ویلر و لد (1982) و تکانشی­بودن هیرشفیلد (1965) را در مراحل پیش­آزمون و پس­آزمون تکمیل کردند. بازی­درمانی کودک­محور  برای گروه آزمایش طی 8 جلسه 45 دقیقه­ای به­صورت انفرادی انجام شد. گروه کنترل مداخله­ای دریافت نکرد. بهمنظور تجزیه و تحلیل داده­ها، از تحلیل کوواریانس چندمتغیره استفاده شد.
یافته­ ها: بازی­درمانی کودک­محور موجب افزایش خودکارآمدی در مقیاس­کل (60/165F=، 001/0p=، 856/0(Eta= و خرده مؤلفه­های موقعیت با­ تعارض، بدون ­تعارض شد. اثربخشی بازی­درمانی کودک­محور بر کاهش رفتارهای تکانشی(15/1380F=، 001/0p=، 891/0Eta=) نیز تأیید گردید.
نتیجه ­گیری: بر اساس نتایج، بازی‌درمانی کودک­محور به عنوان یک روش درمانی مؤثر در افزایش خودکارآمدی و کاهش رفتارهای تکانشی دانش­آموزان دختر مقطع سوم ابتدایی توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the Effectiveness of Child-centered Play Therapy on Impulsive Behaviors and Self-efficacy of Third-Grade Female Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • F Asghari 1
  • F Saeedpoor 2
  • S Navaeian 3
1 Assistant Prof, Dept of Counseling, Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
2 MSc, Dept of Counseling, Faculty of Literature and Human Sciences, University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran.
3 MSc, Dept of Psychology, Faculty of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Rasht Branch, Rasht, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: The early years of life are important for the multi-dimensional transformation of children and the foundation shaping of life. There are many tactics to reduce impulsive behaviors and increase self-efficacy in students. Child-centered play therapy is one of the most effective approaches in this context. The present study aims to determine the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy on impulsive behaviors and self-efficacy of third-grade female students.
Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental design, with a pre-test and post-test with the control group, was used in this applied research. The statistical population of the study included all 9-years-old female students of Ramsar elementary schools in the academic year of 2017-2018. 24 persons were selected by convenience sampling method from two schools in Ramsar city, according to conditions of the study; then, they were randomly divided into experimental and control groups (12 persons in each group). The groups completed Wheeler & Ladd Children Self-Efficacy Scale (1982) and Hirschfield Impulsivity Scale (1965)in pre-test and post-test stages.
During8 sessions of 45minutes, child-centered play therapy was performed for the experimental group individually, while the control group did not receive any intervention. MANCOVA was used to analyze the data.
Results: The results of MANCOVA showed that child-centered play therapy increased self-efficacy in subscales with conflict, without conflict, and total scale (F=165.60,p=0.001,Eta=0.865). Furthermore, the effectiveness of child-centered play therapy on reducing impulsive behaviors was confirmed (F=1380.15, p=0.001,Eta=0.891).
Conclusion: Based on the results, child-centered play therapy as an effective treatment to decrease impulsive behaviors and increase self-efficacy in third-grade female students is recommended.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Child-Centered Play Therapy
  • self-efficacy
  • impulsive behaviors
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