بررسی میزان پایبندی و تأثیر برنامه تمرینات ورزشی طراحی شده بر سلامتی جسمی و روانی مادران باردار

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار، گروه علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران.

2 کارشناس علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران.

10.22123/chj.2020.214436.1411

چکیده

مقدمه: با توجه به نقش مهم تحرک در ایجاد سلامتی جسمی و روانی در دوران بارداری، پژوهش حاضر با هدف تعیین میزان پایبندی و تأثیر برنامه تمرینات ورزشی طراحی­شده بر سلامتی جسمی و روانی مادران باردار انجام شده  است.
مواد و روش­ها: مطالعه نیمه­تجربی حاضر با طرح پیش­آزمون- پس­آزمون بدون گروه کنترل می­باشد که تفکیک گروه­های پایبند و غیر­پایبند در آن با طرح پس رویدادی (Ex post facto) انجام­ شده ­است. مطالعه بر روی150 مادر باردار شهرستان تبریز با نمونه‌گیری در‌ دسترس در سال 98-1397 انجام‌ شد. ابتدا، داده­های مربوط به سطح فعالیت ‌بدنی و سلامتی جسمی-روانی آزمودنی­ها جمع­آوری شد. تمرینات ورزشی طراحی شده بعد از آموزش یک جلسه­ای، در اختیار آزمودنی­ها قرار‌گرفت تا در خانه اجرا کنند. پس از هشت هفته، میزان پایبندی به تمرینات ارزیابی، و اثرات جسمی-روانی تمرینات در دو گروه مقایسه ‌گردید. تعداد کل نمونه­ها در ارزیابی­های ثانویه 114 نفر بود. آزمون­های آنکوا و مـن­ویتنـی­یـو برای مقایسه متغیرها بین دو گروه  استفاده شد.
یافته‌ها: میزان پایبندی به برنامه­تمرینی 15/3 جلسه در هفته بود. 34 مادر باردار (30%) پایبند به تمرینات ورزشی بودند و در مقایسه با گروه غیرپایبند کاهش معنی‌داری در ضربان­ قلب­ فعالیت (044/0=p) و افزایش معنی­داری در قدرت پایین‌تنه (042/0=p) و سطح اشباع ‌اکسیژن‌خون (005/0=p) نشان دادند. تفاوت معنی­داری در سلامتی روانی بین دو گروه مشاهده نشد.
نتیجه­گیری: علی­رغم اینکه تمرینات ورزشی طراحی شده اثرات مفیدی در برخی عملکردهای جسمانی مادران باردار داشت ولی در بهبود سلامتی روانی آنها مؤثر نبود. 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Adherence and Effect of Designed Exercise Training on Physical and Mental Health of Pregnant Mothers

نویسندگان [English]

  • A Zarneshan 1
  • F Abdi 2
1 Assistant Prof, Dept of Sport Science, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
2 BSc Student, Dept of Sport Science, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Given the key role of activity in the development of physical and mental health during pregnancy, this study aimed to evaluate the adherence and effect of the designed exercise training program on the physical and mental health of pregnant women.
Materials and Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was performed with pre-test and post-test without the control group, in which the separation of adherent and non-adherent groups was performed in an Ex post facto design. The study was carried out on 150 pregnant mothers in Tabriz city using convenience sampling in 2018-2019. Initially, data on the level of physical­ activity and physical-mental health were collected from all subjects. The designed exercises were given to the subjects to perform at home after one-session training. After eight weeks, the adherence to the exercises was evaluated, and the physical-mental effects of exercise were compared in two groups. The total number of samples in the secondary assessments was 114.  ANCOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare variables between the two groups.
Results: Adherence to the training program was 3.15 sessions per week. Thirty-four pregnant mothers (30%) adhered to exercise, showing a significant decrease in activity heart rate (p=0/044) and significant increases in low body strength (p=0/042) and SPo2 (p= 0/005) compared to non-exercising women. There was no significant difference in mental health between the two groups (p>0/05).
Conclusion: Although the designed exercise training program had beneficial effects on some physical functions of pregnant mothers, it did not affect their mental health.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Adherence
  • Pregnancy
  • physical activity
  • public health
  1. Chan CW, Au Yeung E, Law BM. Effectiveness of physical activity interventions on pregnancy-related outcomes among pregnant women: a systematic review. International journal of environmental research and public health 2019;16(10):1840.
  2. Aparicio VA, Ocón O, Padilla-Vinuesa C, Soriano-Maldonado A, Romero-Gallardo L, Borges-Cósic M, et al. Effects of supervised aerobic and strength training in overweight and grade I obese pregnant women on maternal and foetal health markers: the GESTAFIT randomized controlled trial. BMC pregnancy and childbirth 2016;16(1):290.
  3. Barakat R, Pelaez M, Cordero Y, Perales M, Lopez C, Coteron J, etal. Exercise During Pregnancy Protects Against Hypertension and Macrosomia: Randomized Clinical Trial. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey 2016;71(9):505-6.
  4. Du MC, Ouyang YQ, Nie XF, Huang Y, Redding SR. Effects of physical exercise during pregnancy on maternal and infant outcomes in overweight and obese pregnant women: A meta‐analysis. Birth 2019;46(2):211-21.
  5. Magro‐Malosso ER, Saccone G, Di Mascio D, Di Tommaso M, Berghella V. Exercise during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth in overweight and obese women: a systematic review and meta‐analysis of randomized controlled trials. Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica 2017;96(3):263-73.
  6.  Sanabria-Martínez G, Poyatos-León R, Notario-Pacheco B, Álvarez-Bueno C, Cavero-Redondo I, Martinez-Vizcaino V. Effects of physical exercise during pregnancy on mothers’ and neonates’ health: a protocol for an umbrella review of systematic reviews and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ open 2019;9(9):e030162.
  7. Bogaert J, Stack M, Partington S, Marceca J, Tremback-Ball A. The effects of stabilization exercise on low back pain and pelvic girdle pain in pregnant women. Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine 2018;61:e157-e8.
  8. Moore I, Johnson A, Mason M, O'Sullivan D. Pregnancy Patterns of Exercise and Physical Activity [35F]. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2017;129(5):70S.
  9. Drinkwater BL. Women in sport. 3 nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008: 195-6John Wiley & Sons; 2008. page 195.
  10. Arikawa AY, O’Dougherty M, Schmitz KH. Adherence to a strength training intervention in adult women. Journal of physical activity and health 2011;8(1):111-8.
  11. Picorelli AMA, Pereira DS, Felicio DC, Dos Anjos DM, Pereira DAG, Dias RC, et al. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise. Clinical interventions in aging. 2014;9:323-31.
  12. Yeo S. Adherence to walking or stretching, and risk of preeclampsia in sedentary pregnant women. Research in nursing & health 2009;32(4):379-90.
  13. Sariman H, Linoby A, Zaki MSM, Azam MZM, Mohamed MN, Diyana N, et al. Sports Science and Performance: Comparison of Handgrip Strength Among Winning and Non-winning Male Boxers. In: Rahmat A, Shariman I,  Norasrudin S, eds. Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Sports Science, Exercise, Engineering and Technology.1nd ed. Singapore : Springer Science and Business Media; 2014: 451-7.
  14. Alcazar J, Losa-Reyna J, Rodriguez-Lopez C, Alfaro-Acha A, Rodriguez-Mañas L, Ara I, et al. The sit-to-stand muscle power test: An easy, inexpensive and portable procedure to assess muscle power in older people. Experimental gerontology 2018;112:38-43.
  15. Brech G, Alonso A, Luna N, Greve J. Correlation of postural balance and knee muscle strength in the sit-to-stand test among women with and without postmenopausal osteoporosis. Osteoporosis international. 2013;24(7):2007-13.
  16. Kahraman BO, Ozsoy I, Akdeniz B, Ozpelit E, Sevinc C, Acar S, et al. Test-retest reliability and validity of the timed up and go test and 30-second sit to stand test in patients with pulmonary hypertension. International Journal of Cardiology 2020;304:159-63.
  17. Yanagawa N, Shimomitsu T, Kawanishi M, Fukunaga T, Kanehisa H. Relationship between performances of 10-time-repeated sit-to-stand and maximal walking tests in non-disabled older women. Journal of physiological anthropology 2017;36(1):2.
  18.  Lira SOR, Sousa VPSd, Medeiros CNA, Viana EdSR. Impact of lumbopelvic pain on postural balance during sit-to-stand activity in pregnant women: a cross-sectional study. Fisioterapia em Movimento 2019;32:1-10.
  19. Abbasi S, Moazami M, Bijeh N, Mirmajidi SR. Investigation of the relationship between physical activity levels, maternal weight (before delivery) and serum cortisol level (during labor) in nulliparous women. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility 2015;18(151):12-9. [persian]
  20. Jette M, Sidney K, Blümchen G. Metabolic equivalents (METS) in exercise testing, exercise prescription, and evaluation of functional capacity. Clinical cardiology 1990;13(8):555-65.
  21. Chandonnet N, Saey D, Alméras N, Marc I. French Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire compared with an accelerometer cut point to classify physical activity among pregnant obese women. PloS one 2012;7(6):e38818.
  22. Ahmadi P. Relationship between physical activity during the first 20 weeks of gestation and hypertension in pregnancy. JSUMS 2007;9(2):20-7. [persian]
  23.  Taghavi S. The normalization of general health questionnaire for Shiraz University students (GHQ-28). Daneshvar Raftar 2008;15(28):1-12. [persian]
  24.  Evenson KR, Wen F. Measuring physical activity among pregnant women using a structured one-week recall questionnaire: evidence for validity and reliability. IJBNPA 2010;7(1):21.
  25. Obstetricians ACo, Gynecologists. Physical activity and exercise during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Committee Opinion No. 650. Obstet Gynecol 2015;126(6):e135-42.
  26. Awad MA, Hasanin ME, Taha MM, Gabr AA. Effect of stretching exercises versus autogenic training on preeclampsia. Journal of exercise rehabilitation 2019;15(1):109-13.
  27. Bahadoran P, Pouya F, Zolaktaf V, Taebi M. The effect of stretching exercise and walking on changes of blood pressure in nulliparous women. IJNMR 2015;20(2):205-10.
  28. Duncombe D, Wertheim EH, Skouteris H, Paxton SJ, Kelly LJM. Factors related to exercise over the course of pregnancy including women's beliefs about the safety of exercise during pregnancy. Midwifery 2009;25(4): 430-8.
  29.  Moore I, Madraswalla M, Mason M, O'Sullivan D, Johnson A. Patterns of Exercise and Physical Activity in Pregnant Women [11N]. Obstetrics & Gynecology 2018;131:154S-5S.
  30. Stutzman SS, Brown CA, Hains SM, Godwin M, Smith GN, Parlow JL, et al. The effects of exercise conditioning in normal and overweight pregnant women on blood pressure and heart rate variability. Biological research for nursing 2010;12(2):137-48.
  31.  Logan JG, Yeo S. Effects of stretching exercise on heart rate variability during pregnancy. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2017;32(2):107-11.
  32. Bilo G, Revera M, Bussotti M, Bonacina D, Styczkiewicz K, Caldara G, et al. Effects of slow deep breathing at high altitude on oxygen saturation, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics. PloS one 2012;7(11):e49074.
  33. Effect of Inspiratory Muscle Training and Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercises on Dyspnea, Pulmonary Functions, Fatigue and Functional Capacity in Pregnancy during Third Trimester. Journal of Clinical & Diagnostic Research. 2019;13(8):1-4.
  34. Davies J, Bull R, Farrelly I, Wakelin M. Improving the calf pump using home-based exercises for patients with chronic venous disease. Wounds UK 2008;4(3):48-53.
  35. Gustafsson M, Stafne S, Romundstad P, Mørkved S, Salvesen K, Helvik AS. The effects of an exercise programme during pregnancy on health‐related quality of life in pregnant women: a Norwegian randomised controlled trial. BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2016;123(7):1152-60.