مقایسه تأثیر تمرینات مقاومتی و آب‌درمانی بر تعادل و زمان واکنش سالمندان مبتلا به اختلال شناخت خفیف

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، گروه آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه آزاد بروجرد، بروجرد، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد، گروه آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران،تهران، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه آسیب‌شناسی و حرکات اصلاحی دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، ،دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

4 استادیار، گروه آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی، دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه خوارزمی تهران، تهران، ایران.

5 کارشناس ارشد، گروه آسیب‌شناسی ورزشی و حرکات اصلاحی دانشکده تربیت‌بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان، کرمان، ایران.

6 کارشناس ارشد، گروه هوشبری دانشکده پیراپزشکی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمانشاه، کرمانشاه، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: افتادن یا سقوط در جمعیت سالمندان عواقب خطرناک، شیوع بالا، تأثیرات بلندمدت و هزینه‌های قابل‌توجه دارد. هدف از انجام پژوهش حاضر، تعیین تأثیر تمرینات مقاومتی و آب‌درمانی بر تعادل و زمان واکنش سالمندان مبتلا به اختلال شناخت خفیف بود.
مواد روش‌ها: پژوهش حاضر، نیمه­تجربی از نوع پیش­آزمون-پس­آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. از بین زنان مبتلا به اختلال شناخت خفیف مراجعه­کننده به مراکز درمانی شهر کرمانشاه در بهار 1398، 30 نفر به­صورت در دسترس انتخاب و به­طور تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایش و  یک گروه کنترل جایگزین شدند (هر گروه 10 نفر). گروه‌های تجربی، 8 هفته (3 جلسه 40 دقیقه­ای در هفته) تمرین انجام دادند. تعادل ایستا با چشمان باز و بسته از طریق آزمون شارپند رومبرگ و تعادل پویا توسط آزمون زمان برخاستن و رفتن قبل و بعد از دوره تمرین اندازه­گیری شد. زمان واکنش ساده و انتخابی نیز اندازه­گیری گردید. داده‌ها توسط آزمون­های تحلیل کوواریانس و تی زوجی تجزیه‌وتحلیل شدند.
یافته‌ها:  اختلاف نمرات پیش­آزمون و پس­آزمون برای متغیرهای تعادل ایستا با چشمان باز، تعادل پویا و زمان واکنش ساده معنی­دار نبود. تفاوت این نمرات برای آزمون­های شارپند رومبرگ با چشم‌بسته + تعادل ایستا و ارزیابی زمان واکنش انتخابی معنی‌دار بود (05/0>p). در گروه‌های مداخله، نمرات پس­آزمون و پیش­آزمون (به جز تعادل پویا) اختلاف معنی‌داری داشت (05/0>p). تفاوت معنی‌داری از نظر اثربخشی روش­های درمانی وجود نداشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: با توجه به اثربخشی تمرینات مقاومتی و آب‌درمانی، این روش­ها می‌توانند به‌عنوان درمان­های کارآمد توسط فیزویوتراپ­ها، جهت بهبود تعادل و زمان واکنش انتخابی سالمندان مبتلا به اختلال شناخت خفیف استفاده شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparing the Effects of Resistance and Hydrotherapic Exercises on Reaction Time and Balance in the Elderly suffering from Mild Cognitive Impairment

نویسندگان [English]

  • Z Norouzi 1
  • MR Amiri Tapeh bor 2
  • A Sakinepoor 3
  • M Hadadnezhad 4
  • M Alimoradi 5
  • M Mirzaei 6
1 MSc, Dept of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, Islamic Azad University of Borujerd, Borujerd, Iran.
2 MSc, Dept of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3 Phd Student, Dept of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences Kharazmi university, Tehran, Iran.
4 Assistant Prof, Dept of Biomechanic and Sport Injury, School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran.
5 MSc, Dept of Sports Injuries and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.
6 MSc, Dept of Anesthesia, School of Allied Medical Sciences, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Falls have dangerous consequences, high prevalence, long-term effects, and significant costs among the elderly. The present study aimed at determining the effect of resistance and hydrotherapic exercises and on the balance and reaction time in the elderly with mild cognitive impairment.
Materials and Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest one with a control group. From among women with mild cognitive impairment referring to medical centers in Kermanshah in the spring of 2019, as many as 30 people were selected by using random convenience sampling. They were then randomly assigned into two groups i.e. experimental and a control (10 samples in each group). The experimental groups practiced for 8 weeks (3 sessions a week, each session lasting 40 minutes). Static balance was measured by using with both open and closed eyes and applying the Sharpened Romberg Test (SRT) and dynamic balance was measured by the Timed Up and Go Test(TUG) before and after the training period. Simple and selective reaction times were measured as well. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance and paired t-test.
Results: The difference between pre-test and post-test scores was not significant for the variables of static balance with open eyes, dynamic balance and simple reaction time. The difference between these scores was significant for Sharpened Romberg Test with closed eye; static balance and evaluation of selective reaction time was significant (p < 0.05). There was a significant difference between post-test and pre-test scores (except for dynamic balance) in the intervention groups (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the effectiveness of treatment methods.
Conclusion: Given the effectiveness of resistance exercises and hydrotherapy, these methods can be used as effective therapies by physiotherapists to improve the balance and selective reaction time among the elderly suffering from mild cognitive impairment.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • mild cognitive impairment
  • resistance exercises
  • Balance
  • Simple reaction time
  • Selective reaction time
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