اثربخشی درمان مبتنی بر دلبستگی بر کاهش علائم اضطراب، احساس تنهایی و عزت‏ نفس کودکان پسر بی‏ سرپرست

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه روانشناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد کرج، تهران، ایران.

2 کارشناس ارشد، گروه روانشناسی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه علم و هنر، یزد، ایران.

3 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه مشاوره، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی، واحد رودهن، تهران، ایران.

10.22123/chj.2021.255715.1614

چکیده

مقدمه: ماهیت پیچیده مشکلات عاطفی-رفتاری کودکان بی‏سرپرست بررسی و بکارگیری درمان‏های جدید را ایجاب می‏کند. لذا این پژوهش با هدف تعیین اثربخشی درمان مبتنی بر دلبستگی بر کاهش علائم اضطراب، احساس تنهایی و عزت‏نفس کودکان پسر بی‏سرپرست انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: پژوهش از نوع نیمه‏آزمایشی با پیش­آزمون، پس­آزمون و گروه کنترل بود. جامعه آماری شامل تمامی پسران بی‏سرپرست ساکن مرکز شبانه‏روزی شهید قدوسی تحت پوشش سازمان بهزیستی تهران در سال 1398 بود. با نمونه‏گیری در دسترس، تعداد 30 نفر انتخاب و در گروه­های آزمایش (15 نفر) و کنترل (15 نفر) قرار گرفتند و پرسش‏نامه­های اضطراب (اسپنس، 1999)، احساس تنهایی (آشر و همکاران، 1984) و عزت‏نفس (کوپراسمیت، 1976) را تکمیل کردند. در گروه آزمایش، درمان مبتنی بر دلبستگی در 10 جلسه (هفته­ای 1 جلسه، هر جلسه 1 ساعت) اجرا گردید. افراد گروه کنترل برنامه درمانی را دریافت نکردند. پس از پایان آموزش، از گروه­ها پس‏آزمون گرفته شد. داده­ها با روش‏های آزمون‏ t مستقل و زوجی و تحلیل کوواریانس چندمتغیری تحلیل شدند.  
یافته‌ها: میانگین نمرات کل اضطراب، اضطراب جدایی، اضطراب اجتماعی، وسواس، فوبی و حمله هراس در گروه آزمایش در مرحله پس‏آزمون نسبت به گروه کنترل تفاوت معنی­داری داشت (05/0>p). بین میانگین نمره احساس تنهایی و عزت‏نفس آزمودنی‏های دو گروه نیز در مرحله پس‏آزمون تفاوت از نظر آماری معنی­دار بود (05/0>p).
نتیجه‌گیری: نتایج این پژوهش تأکیدی بر اهمیت دلبستگی در کودکان بی‏سرپرست دارد که می‏تواند تلویحات کاربردی برای درمانگران جهت کاهش مشکلات عاطفی-رفتاری کودکان و نوجوانان بی‏سرپرست ارایه دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effectiveness of Attachment-based Therapy on Reducing Symptoms of Anxiety, Loneliness, and Self-Esteem in Orphaned Boy Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Bekhnoodeh 1
  • M Ghiyasi Pirzaman 2
  • MS Elahian 3
1 PhD Student, Dept of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Karaj Branch, Tehran, Iran.
2 MSc, Dept of Psychology, University of Science and Art, Yazd, Iran.
3 Ph.D. Student, Dept of Consulting, Islamic Azad University, Rudehen Branch, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Multidimensional and complex nature of children`s behavioral problems requires assessment and application of modern treatments. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of attachment-based therapy on reducing symptoms of anxiety, loneliness, and self-esteem in orphaned boy children.
Materials and Methods: This study was an educational trial with pre-test, post-test, and control groups. The statistical population included all orphaned boys living in institutional homes at Shahid Ghodoosi boarding center under the auspices of the Tehran Welfare Organization in 2019. By the available sampling method, 30 people were selected and divided into experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) groups. Then, they completed the Anxiety Inventory (Spence, 1999), the Loneliness Questionnaire (Asher et al, 1984), and the Self-Esteem Questionnaire (CoperSmith, 1976). In the experimental group, attachment-based therapy was conducted in 10 sessions, 1 per week for 1 hour. After the training, the groups were retested. Data were analyzed by t-test (independent and paired) and multivariate analysis of covariance.
Results: The results showed the mean scores of the total anxiety, separation anxiety, social anxiety, obsession, phobia, and panic attack in the experimental group in the post-test phase to be significantly different from the control group(p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference between the mean score of loneliness and self-esteem of the subjects in the two groups in the post-test stage (p<0.05).
Conclusion: The study emphasizes the importance of attachment in orphaned children, potentially providing practical results for therapists to reduce the emotional-behavioral problems of orphaned children and adolescents.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Attachment-based Therapy
  • anxiety
  • Loneliness
  • Self-esteem
  • Orphaned Children
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