1 استادیار علوم اعصاب شناختی، دانشکده روانشناسی، دانشگاه شهید مدنی آذربایجان، تبریز، ایران
2 دانشجوی دکترای تخصصی علوم اعصاب شناختی دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران
3 کارشناس ارشد علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد تبریز، تبریز، ایران
4 کارشناس ارشد علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه تبریز، تبریز، ایران
عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Multiples clerosis is a common autoimmune disease. The prevalence of multiple sclerosis in the general population of the world is aone percent. This study aimed to compare the perceived social support and psychological hardiness in patients with multiple sclerosis and normal people.
Materials & Methods:This comparative study was executed on 35patients with multiple sclerosis and 35 normal subjects who responded to the perceived social support and psychological hardiness questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of variance.
Results: Data analysis showed significant differences in the scores of patients with multiple sclerosis and normal people on the scale of perceived social support and psychological hardiness. Such that patients with multiple sclerosis had lower scores in social support and psychological hardiness.
Conclusion: Family and community play a vital role in the disease process. By learning and improving the psychological hardiness to improve their mental health, patients could help themselves to overcome the hardships of this disease and in this regard the family and societie’s support are needed as well.
3. Janssens AC, Van Doorn P, De Boer J, Kalkers N, van der Meché FG, Passchier J, et al. A nxiety and depression influence the relation between disability status and quality of life in multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis 2003;9(4):397-403.
4. Abedian Z, Soltani N, Mokhber N, Ismaeli H. Prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth and related factors. The Iranian Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Infertility. 2013;16(78):16-24. ]Persian[.
5. Årestedt K, Saveman B-I, Johansson P, Blomqvist K. Social support and its association with health-related quality of life among older patients with chronic heart failure. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 2013;12(1):69-77.
6. Lee, E. H. Relationships of mood disturbanceand social support to symptom experience in Korean women with breast cancer. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management 2004; 27 (5): 425-433.
7. Lee E-H, Chung BY, Park HB, Chun KH. Relationships of mood disturbance and social support to symptom experience in Korean women with breast cancer. Journal of pain and symptom management 2004;27(5):425-33.
8. Langeland E, Wahl AK. The impact of social support on mental health service users’ sense of coherence: A longitudinal panel survey. International journal of nursing studies 2009;46(6):830-7.
9. Aass N, Fosså S, Dahl A, Aloe T. Prevalence of anxiety and depression in cancer patients seen at the Norwegian Radium Hospital. European journal of cancer 1997;33(10):1597-604.
10. Bovier PA, Chamot E, Perneger TV. Perceived stress, internal resources, and social support as determinants of mental health among young adults. Quality of Life Research 2004;13(1):161-70.
11. Stroebe W, Zech E, Stroebe MS, Abakoumkin G. Does social support help in bereavement? Journal of social and Clinical Psychology 2005;24(7):1030-50.
12. Mirzaeean B, Baazat F, Khakpour N. Internet addiction amongcollege studentsand its impacton mental health. Journal of Information and CommunicationTechnologies in Education 2011; 2(1): 141-60.
13. Kobasa SC. Stressful life events, personality, and health: an inquiry into hardiness. Journal of personality and social psychology 1979;37(1):1-11.
14. Kobasa SC, Maddi SR, Zola MA. Type A and hardiness. Journal of behavioral medicine 1983;6(1):41-51.
15. Florian V, Mikulincer M, Taubman O. Does hardiness contribute to mental health during a stressful real-life situation? The roles of appraisal and coping. Journal of personality and social psychology 1995;68(4):687-95.
16. Wiebe DJ, McCallum DM. Health practices and hardiness as mediators in the stress-illness relationship. Health Psychology 1986;5(5):425-38.
17. Ghorbani N. Spirituality experience is knowledge and modern cognitive to religion or a psychology constructing. Articles and studies Philosophy 2004;76(2):69-98. [Persian]
18. AbuAlRub RF. Job stress, job performance, and social support among hospital nurses. Journal of nursing scholarship 2004;36(1):73-8.
19. Callaghan P, Morrissey J. Social support and health: a review. Journal of advanced nursing 1993;18(2):203-10.
20. Sarafino E P. Health psychology .4th ed. New York:Jhon Wiley & Sons;2002: 216-21.
21. Chang EM, Daly JW, Hancock KM, Bidewell J, Johnson A, Lambert VA, et al. The relationships among workplace stressors, coping methods, demographic characteristics, and health in Australian nurses. Journal of professional nursing 2006;22(1):30-8.
22. Rafiee F, Oskouie F, Nikravesh M. Key factors in nurses’ reaction to Burnout: A qualitative study. Razi Journal of Medical Sciences. 2007;13(53):83-94.[Persian]
23. Zhang J, Verhoef MJ. Illness management strategies among Chinese immigrants living with arthritis. Social science & medicine 2002;55(10):1795-802.
24. Ruggiero L, Spirito A, Bond A, Coustan D, McGarvey S. Impact of social support and stress on compliance in women with gestational diabetes. Diabetes Care 1990;13(4):441-3
25. Mohr DL, Epstein L, Luks TL. Brainlesion volume and neuropsychologicalfunction predict efficacy of treatment fordepression in multiple sclerosis. J ConsultClinPsychol 2003; 71(6): 1017-24.
26. McCabe MP, McKern S, McDonald E. Coping and psychological adjustment among people with multiple sclerosis. Journal of psychosomatic research 2004;56(3):355-61.
27. Warren PL. First-time mothers: social support and confidence in infant care. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2005;50(5):479-88.
28. Askay SW, Magyar-Russell G. Post-traumatic growth and spirituality in burn recovery. International review of psychiatry 2009;21(6):570-9.
29. Joseph S, Linley PA. Positive psychology versus the medical model?: Comment 2006; 61(4): 332-3.
30. Beasley M, Thompson T, Davidson J. Resilience in response to life stress: the effects of coping style and cognitive hardiness. Personality and Individual differences 2003;34(1):77-95.
31. Lau RR, Hartman KA, Ware JE. Health as a value: Methodological and theoretical considerations. Health Psychology 1986;5(1):25.
32. Pollock SE. The hardiness characteristic: A motivating factor in adaptation. Advances in Nursing Science. 1989;11(2):53-62.
33. Pollock SE, Verran JA, Hoare K, Solomons HC. Adaptive responses to diabetes mellitus. Western Journal of nursing research 1989;11(3):265-80.
34. Hung CH. Postpartum stress as a predictor of womens minor psychiatric morbidity. Community Mental Health Journal 2007;43(1):1-11.
35. Tromp D, Brouha X, Hordijk G, Winnubst J, Gebhardt W, Van Der Doef M, et al. Medical care-seeking and health-risk behavior in patients with head and neck cancer: the role of health value, control beliefs and psychological distress. Health education research 2005;20(6):665-75.
36. Smith N, Young A, Lee C. Optimism, health-related hardiness and well-being among older Australian women. Journal of Health Psychology 2004;9(6):741-52.
37. Contrada RJ. Type A behavior, personality hardiness, and cardiovascular responses to stress. Journal of personality and social psychology 1989;57(5):895-903.
38. Chung MC, Preveza E, Papandreou K, Prevezas N. Locus of control among spinal cord injury patients with different levels of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatry Research 2007;152(2):253-60.