تعیین اثربخشی آموزش مهارت‌های زندگی بر بهبود سلامت عمومی و جرأت‌مندی دختران نوجوان مورد سوءاستفاده جنسی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد، گروه روانشناسی بالینی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد بین‌الملل کیش، ایران.

2 استاد، گروه روانشناسی بالینی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد بین‌الملل کیش، ایران.

چکیده

مقدمه: سوءاستفاده جنسی از مهم­ترین عوامل تهدیدکننده سلامت دختران در جهان است. مهارت­های زندگی، مهارت­های شخصی و اجتماعی هستند که نوجوانان با یادگیری آن­ها می­توانند در مورد خود و انسان­های دیگر به­طور شایسته­تری عمل کنند. بنابراین، این پژوهش با هدف تعیین اثربخشی آموزش مهارت­های زندگی بر سلامت عمومی و جرأت­مندی دختران مورد سوءاستفاده جنسی انجام شد.
مواد و روش‌ها: این مطالعه از نوع کارآزمایی آموزشی با پیش­آزمون، پس­آزمون و پیگیری با گروه گواه بود. جامعه آماری پژوهش دختران با تجربه آزار و اذیت جنسی شهر تهران در سال 1397 بودند. 40 نفر با نمونه­گیری در دسترس انتخاب و در گروه­های آزمایش (20 نفر) و گواه (20 نفر) قرار گرفتند. جهت جمع­آوری داده­ها از مقیاس سلامت عمومی (گُلدبرگ، 1972) و مقیاس جرأت­مندی (گمبریل و ریچی، 1975) استفاده شد. در گروه آزمایش، آموزش مهارت زندگی در 9 جلسه به ­صورت هفته­ای 2 جلسه و هر جلسه 120 دقیقه اجرا گردید. در پایان آموزش از گروه­ها پس­آزمون گرفته شد و 2 ماه بعد نیز مرحله پیگیری انجام شد. داده­ها با آنالیز واریانس دوطرفه با اندازه­گیری مکرر تحلیل شد.
یافته‌ها: نتایج پژوهش نشان داد آموزش مهارت زندگی بر سلامت عمومی (59/3=F، 014/0=p و 22/0=Eta) و جرأت­مندی دختران نوجوان مورد سوءاستفاده جنسی (32/4=F، 001/0=p و 26/0=Eta) گروه آزمایش در مراحل پس­آزمون و پیگیری تأثیر مثبت و معنی­داری داشت.
نتیجه‌گیری: آموزش مهارت­های زندگی می­تواند جرأت­مندی دختران نوجوان را بهبود بخشد و علایم روان­شناختی ناشی از سوءاستفاده جنسی را کنترل کند. درمان مکمل آموزش مهارت­های زندگی در کنار درمان روان­پزشکی روتین این بیماران توصیه می­شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the Effectiveness of Training Life Skills on Improving General Health and Assertiveness in Sexually Abused Female Adolescents

نویسندگان [English]

  • M Bagheri Panah 1
  • F Jomehri 2
1 MSc, Dept of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Kish International Branch, Kish, Iran.
2 Prof, Dept of Clinical Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Kish International Branch, kish, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Sexual abuse is one of the most important threats to the health of girls in the world. Life skills are personal and social skills that help teens perform better toward themselves and other people by learning them. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effectiveness of life skills training on general health and the assertiveness of sexually abused girls.
Materials and Methods: This study was an educational trial with a pre-test, a post-test and a follow up with a control group. The statistical population of the study was girls with an experience of sexual harassment in Tehran in the year 2018. A total of 40 people were selected through available sampling and were assigned to each of the experimental (20 subjects) and the control (20 subjects) groups. Data were collected using a general health scale and a dare scale. In the experimental group, life skills training was conducted in a total of nine sessions, with two sessions every week, each session lasting 120 minutes. After finishing the training, both groups received a post-test, and two months later the follow-up was done. Data were analyzed using a two-way repeated measures ANOVA.
Results: The results of this study showed that life skills training has a significant positive effect on psychological general health (F=3.59, p=0.014 and Eta=0.22) and adolescent girls' sexual abuse (F=4.32. p=0.001 and Eta=0.26). The experimental group has a positive and significant effect on the post-test and follow up stages.
Conclusion: Life skills training can improve the adolescent girls' juvenile behavior and control the psychological symptoms of sexual abuse. The adjunct individual and family psycho education are recommended to this group of patients besides their routine psychiatric treatments.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Sexually Abused
  • Life Skills Training
  • General health
  • Assertiveness
  • Female adolescents
  1. Philip Rice F. Human Development: A Life-Span Approach. 4nd ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company; 2001:314-17.
  2. Bicanic I, De Roos C, Van Wesel F, Sinnema G, van de Putte E. Rape-related symptoms in adolescents: short-and long-term outcome after cognitive behavior group therapy. European journal of psychotraumatology 2014;5(1):22969.
  3. Struckman-Johnson C, Struckman-Johnson D. A comparison of sexual coercion experiences reported by men and women in prison. Journal of interpersonal violence 2006;21(12):1591-615.
  4. Pawils S, Nick S, Metzner F, Lotzin A, Schäfer I. Healthcare situation for children, adolescent and adult victims of sexual violence in Germany: A critical overview. Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz 2017;60(9):1046-54.
  5. Baytunca MB, Ata E, Ozbaran B, Kaya A, Kose S, Aktas EO, et al. Childhood sexual abuse and supportive factors. Pediatrics international 2017;59(1):10-5.
  6. Fuller-Thomson EBaird SLDhrodia RBrennenstuhl S. The association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and suicide attempts in a population-based study. Child Care Health Dev 2016;42(5):725-34.
  7. Rajan G, Ljunggren G, Wändell P, Wahlström L, Svedin C-G, Carlsson AC. Diagnoses of sexual abuse and their common registered comorbidities in the total population of Stockholm. J Epidemiol Community Health 2017;71(6):592-8.
  8. Wagner G, Zeiler M, Waldherr K, Philipp J, Truttmann S, Dür W, et al. Mental health problems in Austrian adolescents: a nationwide, two-stage epidemiological study applying DSM-5 criteria. European child & adolescent psychiatry 2017;26(12):1483-99.
  9. Decker MR, Wood SN, Ndinda E, Yenokyan G, Sinclair J, Maksud N, et al. Sexual violence among adolescent girls and young women in Malawi: a cluster-randomized controlled implementation trial of empowerment self-defense training. BMC public health 2018;18(1):1341.
  10. Omura M, Levett‐Jones T, Stone TE. Evaluating the impact of an assertiveness communication training programme for Japanese nursing students: A quasi‐experimental study. Nursing open 2019;6(2):463-72.
  11. Makinde BO, Akinteye AJ. Effects if Mentoring and Assertiveness Training on Adolescents' Self-Esteem in Lagos State Secondary Schools. Int'l J Soc Sci Stud 2014;2(3):78-88.
  12. Postma R, Bicanic I, van der Vaart H, Laan E. Pelvic floor muscle problems mediate sexual problems in young adult rape victims. The Journal of Sexual Medicine 2013;10(8):1978-87.
  13. Salloum A, Wang W, Robst J, Murphy TK, Scheeringa MS, Cohen JA, et al. Stepped care versus standard trauma‐focused cognitive behavioral therapy for young children. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 2016;57(5):614-22.
  14. Salloum A, Small BJ, Robst J, Scheeringa MS, Cohen JA, Storch EA. Stepped and standard care for childhood trauma: A pilot randomized clinical trial. Research on Social Work Practice 2017;27(6):653-63.
  15. Abbasi P, Timareh M, Ziapour A, Dehghan F, Yazdani V. The Effect of Life Skills Training on Reducing the High-Risk Behaviors among High School Students in Kermanshah, North West of Iran. International Journal of Pediatrics 2018;6(10):8433-43.
  16. Kani F, Samsam SMR, Mehdad A, Taki F, Kourang Beheshti M, Hekmatravan R. The Effecti of Life Skills Training on Improving SCL-90 Psychological Indicators and Quality of Life in Patients with Diabetes. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology 2014;15(3):81-91.[Persian]
  17. Jamali S, Sabokdast S, Nia HS, Goudarzian AH, Beik S, Allen K-A. The effect of life skills training on mental health of Iranian middle school students: A preliminary study. Iranian journal of psychiatry 2016;11(4):269-72.
  18. Kazemi R, Momeni S, Abolghasemi A. The effectiveness of life skill training on self-esteem and communication skills of students with dyscalculia. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 2014;114:863-6.
  19. Shahali S, Mohammadi E, Lamyian M, Kashanian M, Eslami M. Experience of healthcare providers to deal with victims of sexual assault: a qualitative research. Journal of Qualitative Research in Health Sciences 2014;3(1):37-50. [Persian]
  20. Davis KC, Masters NT, Casey E, Kajumulo KF, Norris J, George WH. How childhood maltreatment profiles of male victims predict adult perpetration and psychosocial functioning. Journal of interpersonal violence 2018;33(6):915-37.
  21. Madruga CS, Viana MC, Abdalla RR, Caetano R, Laranjeira R. Pathways from witnessing parental violence during childhood to involvement in intimate partner violence in adult life: The roles of depression and substance use. Drug and alcohol review 2017;36(1):107-14.
  22. Gater RA, Goldberg D, Evanson J, Lowson K, McGrath G, Tantam D, et al. Detection and treatment of psychiatric illness in a general medical ward: a modified cost–benefit analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research1998;45(5):437-48.
  23. Nazifi M, Mokarami H, Akbaritabar A, Faraji Kujerdi M, Tabrizi R, Rahi A. Reliability, Validity and Factor Structure of the Persian Translation of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) in Hospitals of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences/Majallah-i Danishgah-i Ulum-i Pizishki-i Fasa 2014;3(4):336-42.
  24. Gambrill ED, Richey CA. An assertion inventory for use in assessment and research. Behavior Therapy 1975;6(4):550-61.
  25. Esmaeili M. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training by Cognitive-Behavioral Group in the Increase of Girls’ Self-Esteem and Assertiveness with Addicted Parents. research on addiction 2011;4(16):41-56. [Persian]
  26. Shabani M, Moghimi M, Zamiri RE, Nazari F, Mousavinasab N, Shajari Z. Life skills training effectiveness on non-metastatic breast cancer mental health: a clinical trial. Middle East Journal of Cancer 2012;3(4):109-17.
  27. Sobhi-Gharamaleki N, Rajabi S. Efficacy of life skills training on increase of mental health and self esteem of the students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 2010;5:1818-22.
  28. Patel A. Need For Life Skills Education among Tribal and Non Tribal Students. The International Journal of Indian Psychology 2014;2:17-28.
  29. Lobo L. Sexual Abuse Knowledge and Its Relationship with Self Confidence and Assertiveness Skills among Young Adolescent Girls. International Journal of Science and Research 2018;7(9):41-5.
  30. Widman L, Golin CE, Kamke K, Burnette JL, Prinstein MJ. Sexual assertiveness skills and sexual decision-making in adolescent girls: Randomized controlled trial of an online program. American journal of public health 2018;108(1):96-102.
  31. Azmoude E, Firoozi M, Sahebzad ES, Asgharipour N. Relationship between gender roles and sexual assertiveness in married women. International journal of community based nursing and midwifery 2016;4(4):363-73.